Types of

Korean Food

There are three types of Korean food: staples, side dishes, and dessert. There are also various sauces,which have unique scents. Let us explore them in detail.

  • 주식류(Jusik)

    • Bap (Cooked Rice) | 밥

    • Juk (Porridge) | 죽, 미음, 응이

    • Dumpling | 만두

    • Rice Cake | 떡국

    • Guksu (Noodles) | 국수

  • ​찬품류(Chanpoom)

    • Guk, Tang (Soup) | 국, 탕

    • Jjigae (Stew) | 찌개

    • Jeongol (Hotpots) | 전골

    • Bokkeum (Stir-fried Dishes) | 볶음

    • Jjim and Seon (Pan-fried Delicacies) | 찜, 선

    • Saengchae (Raw Vegetables) | 생, 채

    • Namul (Herbs) | 나물

    • Jorim (Food Boiled In Seasonings) | 조림

    • Cho (Vinegar) | 초

    • Junyueo (Fried Fish) | 전유어

    • Gui and Jeok (Grilled Seasoned Meat on a Stick) | 구이, 적

    • Hwe (Raw Food Dishes) | 회

    • Ssam (Food Wrapped In Lettuce, Cabbage, Sesame, or other Greens) | 쌈

    • Pyunyuk (Slices Of Boiled Meat) | 편육

    • Jokpyeon (Cow’s Hoof Jelly) | 족편

    • Twigak (Fried Kelp) | 튀각

    • Boogak (Another Type Of Fried Kelp) | 부각

    • Po (Fish Or Meat Sliced Thin) | 포

    • Jangajji (Vegetables Pickled In Soy Sauce) | 장아찌

    • Kimchi | 김치

    • Jutgal (Salted Fish) | 젓갈

  • 양념(Yangnyum)

    • Salty: Salt, Ganjang, Doenjang, Gochujang | 짠맛

    • Sweet: Sugar, Honey, Grain Syrup, Taffy | 단맛

    • Sour: Vinegar, Tangerines | 신맛

    • Spicy: Chili, Mustard, Akane, Pepper, Ginger | 매운맛

    • Bitter: Ginger | 쓴맛

    • Red: Red Chili, Jujube, Carrots | 붉은색

    • Green: Water Parsley, Cucumbers, Pumpkins, Small Green Onions | 녹색

    • Yellow: Yolk Of Egg | 노란색

    • White: Egg Whites | 흰색

    • Black: Manna Lichen Mushrooms, Black Mushrooms, Shiitake Mushrooms | 검정색

  • 고명 (Gomyung)

    • Egg Garnish | 알고명

    • Eggrolls Stuffed with Chopped Meat | 알쌈

    • Bongori (Meatballs Fried in Egg Batter) | 봉오리(완자)

    • Water Parsley on a Stick | 미나리 초대

    • Water Parsley | 미나리

    • Hwang hwachae (Yellow Fruit Salad) | 황화채

    • Red Pepper | 고추

    • Pine Nuts | 잣

    • Mushrooms | 버섯

    • Walnuts | 호두

    • Ginkgo Nuts | 은행 

 

Staple Foods 주식류

Bap 밥


The staple food is white rice, or bap. There is also a mixed-grain bap that includes barley, sorghum, beans, adzuki beans and other grains with rice. Bap is made by boiling grains and fruits with rice, which absorb the water, and letting it rest for a sufficient amount of time. You can also create different kinds of bap for special dishes by mixing it with vegetables, seafood, or meat. Bibimbap is a dish where different kinds of herbs and meat are placed on top of bap. 주식은 주로 쌀로 지은 흰밥이고 보리, 조, 수수, 콩, 팥 등을 섞어 지은 잡곡밥이 있다. 밥은, 곡물과물을 함께 넣고 끓여서 수분을 흡수시켜 익힌 후에 충분히 뜸을 들여서 완전히 호화 시킨 것이다. 별식으로 채소류, 어패류, 육류 등을 넣어 짓기도 하며, 비빔밥은 밥 위에 나물과 고기를 얹어서 비벼 먹는 밥이다.




Juk, Mieum (Thin Rice Gruel) and Ongyi (Another Type of Thin Rice Gruel) 죽, 미음, 응이


Juk, mieum, and ongyi are portable foods made from grains. Juk is made by placing or grinding the grains into boiling water and letting it rest. Mieum is different from juk, as the grain is put in a sieve to boil and is filtered. For ongyi, the grain is boiled in water and becomes thin enough to drink. You can also boil different vegetables, meat, and fish with grains when making juk. The different types of juk include jat juk (pine nut porridge), ggae juk (a gruel made of powdered sesame), hodu juk (walnut porridge), nokdu juk (mung bean gruel), and kong juk (a mixed gruel of rice and beans), which are all made by boiling grains. Juks that use vegetables include nulgeunhobak juk (pumpkin porridge), aehobak juk (green pumpkin porridge), shiitake juk (mushroom porridge), and awook juk (curled mallow porridge). For juks made of seafood, there are: jeonbok juk (abalone porridge) uh juk (fish porridge), jogae juk (clam porridge), peemoonuh juk (octopus porridge), among others. There are also juks made with meat, which include janggeuk juk (clear soup porridge), swegogi juk (beef porridge), dakgogi juk (chicken porridge) and others. 모두 곡물로 만드는 유동식 음식으로, 죽은 곡물을 알곡으로 또는 갈아서 물을 넣고 끓여 완전히 호화 시킨 것이고, 미음은 죽과는 달리 곡물을 알곡 째 푹 고아서 체에 거른 것이다. 응이는 곡물의 전분을 물에 풀어서 끓인 것으로 훌훌 마실 수 있을 정도로 묽다. 죽에다 곡물 이외에 채소류, 육류, 어패류 등을 넣고 끓이기도 한다. 곡물에 열매를 넣은 죽으로 잣죽, 깨죽, 호도죽, 녹두죽, 콩죽 등이 있고, 채소를 넣은 죽으로는 늙은호박죽, 애호박죽, 표고죽, 아욱죽 등이 있고, 어패류죽으로는 전복죽, 어죽, 조개죽, 피문어죽 등이 있으며, 육류죽으로는 장국죽, 쇠고기죽, 닭고기죽 등이 있다.




Mandu (Dumplings), Tteokguk (Rice Cake Soup) 만두, 떡국


There are a variety of mandu skins depending on the ingredients and fillings. The skins are usually made with flattened dough, but some are made with flattened buckwheat flour dough, called memil mandu (buckwheat flour dumplings). During ancient times in the royal palace, mandu was formed into a half-moon shape, called byungsi, or a sea cucumber shape, called gyuasang. These two methods are different from the one commonly used, which is to close the skin around the shape of the fillings. Mandu is filled with pumpkin, bean sprouts, beef, and other ingredients. They are then covered with a rectangular piece of dough. In Pyeongan-do, a region in northern North Korea, people used to make fillings with cabbage kimchi, pork, and tofu. They also formed the mandu in big circular shapes and wrapped the skins in accordance with the fillings inside before boiling the mandu in meat broth. During Lunar New Year’s Day, families pay their respects to ancestors by conducting rites that include serving tteokguk to their ancestors, which the family eats as well. This tradition has been passed down in Korea. Tteokguk is made by boiling bar-shaped rice cakes, made of non-glutinous rice, in meat broth. The rice cakes are cut thin and shaped into ovals. In the north, people enjoy mandu on Lunar New Year’s Day, and in the south, people enjoy eating tteokguk. 만두는 껍질의 재료와 넣는 소에 따라 아주 다양하다. 대개는 밀가루를 반죽하여 밀어서 껍질을 만드는데, 메밀가루로 빚는 메밀만두도 있다. 궁중의 만두에는 소를 넣어 주름을 잡지 않고 반달형으로 빚은 병시와 해삼 모양으로 빚은 규아상이 있다. 편수는 네모진 껍질에 호박, 숙주, 쇠고기 등으로 만든 소를 넣고 네모지게 빚는다. 평안도를 비롯한 북쪽 지방에서는 배추김치, 돼지고기, 두부 등으로 소를 만들어 넣고, 둥근 껍질에 소를 넣어 주름을 잡거나 둥근 모양으로 크게 빚어서 육수에 넣어 끓인다. 예부터 우리나라에서는 어느 가정에서나 정월 초하루에는 떡국을 마련하여 조상께 차례를 지내고, 새해 아침의 첫 식사로 삼아 왔다. 떡국은 멥쌀로 흰 가래떡을 만들어 어슷한 타원형으로 얇게 썰어 육수에 넣어 끓인다. 북쪽 지방에서는 만두를 즐기고, 남쪽에서는 떡국을 즐겨 먹는다.




Guksu 국수


Guksu was not made for breakfast or supper, but rather was served to guests on special occasions. Guksu is a simple dish that can be enjoyed for lunch. There are different types of guksu, depending on the grain or starch used to make it. These include mil guksu (wheat flour noodles), memil guksu (buckwheat noodles), nokmal guksu (starch noodles), gangryang guksu (corn noodles), chilgk guksu (arrowroot noodles), and many other types. There are also different types of broth for guksu, and you can eat it in either hot or cold broth. Guksu in a hot soup makes the noodles warm, while you can enjoy meat broth. For cold broth there is naengmyeon (cold noodles) with dongchimi (water-based radish kimchi), and bibim guksu. One example of a warm noodle soup is guksujang guk (clear soup noodles) which in the past included pheasant, but now more commonly uses beef brisket or beef leg bones. Kalguksu, made with boiled chicken, is another example of a warm guksu soup. Naengmyeon is made by mixing dough or starch with buckwheat powder and pulling it through a noodle-maker. Kalguksu is made by slicing dough or buckwheat powder. In the summer, you can also enjoy kong guksu (bean noodles), a mixture of wheat flour noodles with bean soup. 국수는 조석의 식사 때보다는 잔치나 손님 접대할 때 주식으로 차리고, 평상시에는 간단한 점심 식사용으로 많이 먹는다. 국수에는 곡물이나 전분의 재료에 따라 밀국수, 메밀국수, 녹말국수, 강량국수, 칡국수 등이 있다. 또, 따뜻한 국물에 먹는 온면과 찬 육수나 동치미 국물에 먹는 냉면, 장국에 말지 않는 비빔국수로 나눌 수 있다. 온면의 하나인 국수장국은 예전에는 꿩고기를 쓰기도 하였으나 대개는 쇠고기 양지머리나 사골 등을 삶아 쓰고, 칼국수에는 닭 삶은 국물을 쓴다. 냉면은 메밀가루에 밀가루나 전분을 섞어 반죽하여 국수틀에 넣어 눌러 빼고, 칼국수는 밀가루나 메밀가루를 반죽하여 얇게 밀어 칼로 썬다. 여름철에는 콩국에 밀국수를 말아먹는 콩국수도 즐겨 먹는다.





 

Subsidiary Dishes 찬품류

Salt 소금


In the late Joseon Dynasty, horyeom (sun-dried salt) and jejeyeom (manufactured salt) were used in palaces and general households. Horyeom was mixed with a lot of materials that gave it a salty taste. It was used to make kimchi in the winter, and for soy sauce. Jejeyeom was used in the seasoning of food. 조선조 말에는 궁중이나 일반 가정에서 호렴(胡鹽)과 재제염(再製鹽)을 사용하였다. 호렴은 잡물이 많이 섞여 있어 쓴맛이 나는데 김장이나 장을 담글 때 사용하며, 음식의 조미에는 재제염을 사용한다.




Honey 꿀


Honey was very expensive, which made it difficult to use in normal households. However, it was used often in the palace to make tteok and gwaja. In Chinese, honey is called chung. Clear honey, which is of the highest quality, is called baekchung. Yellow-colored honey is called hwangchung. 꿀은 비싼 것이라 민가에서는 흔하게 쓰지 못했지만 궁중에서는 음식에는 물론 떡, 과자를 만들 때 많이 썼다. 한자로는 청(淸)으로 표기하고, 투명하고 품질이 좋은 꿀을 백청(白淸), 노란색 꿀은 황청(黃淸)이라 한다.




Sugar 설탕


Sugar has been used in Korea since the Goryeo Dynasty, but was not disseminated to the general population. Up until the 1950s, yellow unrefined sugar was often used. 설탕은 고려 시대부터 썼으나 민가에까지 널리 퍼지지는 않았으며, 1950년도까지는 정제가 덜 된 황설탕은 많이 썼다.




Taffy, Grain Syrup 엿, 조청


This was used in the past to make a sweet taste, however, it is now used mostly in starch syrup 단맛을 내는 데 썼으나 지금은 물엿을 많이 쓴다.




Vinegar 식초


If you store alcohol in a pot, acetobacters enter the alcohol and oxidize it. As a result, acetic acid is created and clear yellow liquid comes to the top. This liquid is poured and used as vinegar. If you pour alcohol in again, in the same quantity as the extracted vinegar, vinegar keeps on forming. This is a completely different method of creating vinegar compared to today. The vinegar that is extracted with this method has also a unique smell. 술을 항아리에 담아 두면 초산균이 들어가서 알코올을 산화시켜 초산이 생기면서 황록색의 투명한 액이 위쪽에 모인다. 이것을 따라서 쓰고 다시 덜어낸 만큼 술을 부으면 계속 초가 만들어지는데 지금의 식초와는 전혀 다른 독특한 향이 있다.




Chili 고추


Young green chilies and ripe red chilies are used for seasoning. Most of the time, chili is dried to make a powder and is used for side dishes such as kimchi and gochujang. Shredded red pepper is used as a food garnish. 고추는 덜 성숙한 풋고추도 쓰고, 익은 붉은색 고추도 쓴다. 대부분은 말려서 고춧가루로 빻아 찬물과 김치와 고추장에 쓴다. 실고추는 주로 고명으로 쓴다.




Pepper 후추


Pepper came to Korea from China during the middle of the Goryeo Dynasty,. It has been used for a long time to create a spicy taste. Before the importation of pepper, akane (cheoncho) was used by a lot of Koreans. However, since the importation of red chili, it is rarely used. 고려 중엽에 중국에서 들어와서 오랫동안 매운맛을 내는 향신료로 써 왔다. 우리나라에는 원래 매운맛을 내는 천초(川椒)가 있었으나 고추가 들어온 이후 거의 쓰지 않게 되었다.




Mustard 겨자


Mustard is made by grinding the seeds of the leaf mustard. The powder itself is not spicy, but when it is mixed with hot water and put in a warm place it develops a spicy taste and is then used as a seasoning. The flavor of mustard can be changed using vinegar, sugar and salt. Then it can be used with gyoejachae and hwe. 갓의 씨앗을 빻아서 쓰는데 가루 자체에는 매운맛이 나지 않으며 더운물로 개어서 따뜻한 곳에 두어 매운맛이 나게 한 다음에 쓴다. 매운맛이 나면 식초, 설탕, 소금으로 간을 맞추어 겨자채나 회에 쓴다.




Oil 기름


Sesame and perilla oil are plant oils that were used a lot in the past. In the palaces, sesame oil was made from sesame seeds and was used in a variety of food. It was also used in making yugwa (oil-and-honey pastry) and yumil (honey flow). 식물성 기름으로 참기름(眞油)과 들기름(法油)을 주로 썼다. 궁중에서는 참깨로 만든 참기름을 음식에 두루 썼고 유과나 유밀과 만들 때도 많이 썼다.




Ground sesame mixed with salt 깨소금


Ground sesame mixed with salt is made by washing sesame seeds and boiling them. Before the seeds cool down, some salt is added and half of the seeds are ground in a mortar and used as seasoning. The boiled sesame seeds can also be used without grinding them. The white part of the sesame, after the inner layer of the skin is rubbed off, is called sil ggae. 참깨를 잘 일어서 씻어 건져 번철에 볶아 식기 전에 소금을 약간 넣고 절구에 반쯤 빻아서 양념으로 쓴다. 볶은 깨를 빻지 않고 통깨로 쓰기도 한다. 비벼서 속껍질까지 벗긴 깨를 실깨라고 하는데 희고 곱다.





 

Spices and Sauces 양념류

Salt 소금


In the late Joseon Dynasty, horyeom (sun-dried salt) and jejeyeom (manufactured salt) were used in palaces and general households. Horyeom was mixed with a lot of materials that gave it a salty taste. It was used to make kimchi in the winter, and for soy sauce. Jejeyeom was used in the seasoning of food. 조선조 말에는 궁중이나 일반 가정에서 호렴(胡鹽)과 재제염(再製鹽)을 사용하였다. 호렴은 잡물이 많이 섞여 있어 쓴맛이 나는데 김장이나 장을 담글 때 사용하며, 음식의 조미에는 재제염을 사용한다.




Honey 꿀


Honey was very expensive, which made it difficult to use in normal households. However, it was used often in the palace to make tteok and gwaja. In Chinese, honey is called chung. Clear honey, which is of the highest quality, is called baekchung. Yellow-colored honey is called hwangchung. 꿀은 비싼 것이라 민가에서는 흔하게 쓰지 못했지만 궁중에서는 음식에는 물론 떡, 과자를 만들 때 많이 썼다. 한자로는 청(淸)으로 표기하고, 투명하고 품질이 좋은 꿀을 백청(白淸), 노란색 꿀은 황청(黃淸)이라 한다.




Sugar 설탕


Sugar has been used in Korea since the Goryeo Dynasty, but was not disseminated to the general population. Up until the 1950s, yellow unrefined sugar was often used. 설탕은 고려 시대부터 썼으나 민가에까지 널리 퍼지지는 않았으며, 1950년도까지는 정제가 덜 된 황설탕은 많이 썼다.




Taffy, Grain Syrup 엿, 조청


This was used in the past to make a sweet taste, however, it is now used mostly in starch syrup 단맛을 내는 데 썼으나 지금은 물엿을 많이 쓴다.




Vinegar 식초


If you store alcohol in a pot, acetobacters enter the alcohol and oxidize it. As a result, acetic acid is created and clear yellow liquid comes to the top. This liquid is poured and used as vinegar. If you pour alcohol in again, in the same quantity as the extracted vinegar, vinegar keeps on forming. This is a completely different method of creating vinegar compared to today. The vinegar that is extracted with this method has also a unique smell. 술을 항아리에 담아 두면 초산균이 들어가서 알코올을 산화시켜 초산이 생기면서 황록색의 투명한 액이 위쪽에 모인다. 이것을 따라서 쓰고 다시 덜어낸 만큼 술을 부으면 계속 초가 만들어지는데 지금의 식초와는 전혀 다른 독특한 향이 있다.




Chili 고추


Young green chilies and ripe red chilies are used for seasoning. Most of the time, chili is dried to make a powder and is used for side dishes such as kimchi and gochujang. Shredded red pepper is used as a food garnish. 고추는 덜 성숙한 풋고추도 쓰고, 익은 붉은색 고추도 쓴다. 대부분은 말려서 고춧가루로 빻아 찬물과 김치와 고추장에 쓴다. 실고추는 주로 고명으로 쓴다.




Pepper 후추


Pepper came to Korea from China during the middle of the Goryeo Dynasty,. It has been used for a long time to create a spicy taste. Before the importation of pepper, akane (cheoncho) was used by a lot of Koreans. However, since the importation of red chili, it is rarely used. 고려 중엽에 중국에서 들어와서 오랫동안 매운맛을 내는 향신료로 써 왔다. 우리나라에는 원래 매운맛을 내는 천초(川椒)가 있었으나 고추가 들어온 이후 거의 쓰지 않게 되었다.




Mustard 겨자


Mustard is made by grinding the seeds of the leaf mustard. The powder itself is not spicy, but when it is mixed with hot water and put in a warm place it develops a spicy taste and is then used as a seasoning. The flavor of mustard can be changed using vinegar, sugar and salt. Then it can be used with gyoejachae and hwe. 갓의 씨앗을 빻아서 쓰는데 가루 자체에는 매운맛이 나지 않으며 더운물로 개어서 따뜻한 곳에 두어 매운맛이 나게 한 다음에 쓴다. 매운맛이 나면 식초, 설탕, 소금으로 간을 맞추어 겨자채나 회에 쓴다.




Oil 기름


Sesame and perilla oil are plant oils that were used a lot in the past. In the palaces, sesame oil was made from sesame seeds and was used in a variety of food. It was also used in making yugwa (oil-and-honey pastry) and yumil (honey flow). 식물성 기름으로 참기름(眞油)과 들기름(法油)을 주로 썼다. 궁중에서는 참깨로 만든 참기름을 음식에 두루 썼고 유과나 유밀과 만들 때도 많이 썼다.




Ground sesame mixed with salt 깨소금


Ground sesame mixed with salt is made by washing sesame seeds and boiling them. Before the seeds cool down, some salt is added and half of the seeds are ground in a mortar and used as seasoning. The boiled sesame seeds can also be used without grinding them. The white part of the sesame, after the inner layer of the skin is rubbed off, is called sil ggae. 참깨를 잘 일어서 씻어 건져 번철에 볶아 식기 전에 소금을 약간 넣고 절구에 반쯤 빻아서 양념으로 쓴다. 볶은 깨를 빻지 않고 통깨로 쓰기도 한다. 비벼서 속껍질까지 벗긴 깨를 실깨라고 하는데 희고 곱다.





Toppings 고명

Salt 소금


In the late Joseon Dynasty, horyeom (sun-dried salt) and jejeyeom (manufactured salt) were used in palaces and general households. Horyeom was mixed with a lot of materials that gave it a salty taste. It was used to make kimchi in the winter, and for soy sauce. Jejeyeom was used in the seasoning of food. 조선조 말에는 궁중이나 일반 가정에서 호렴(胡鹽)과 재제염(再製鹽)을 사용하였다. 호렴은 잡물이 많이 섞여 있어 쓴맛이 나는데 김장이나 장을 담글 때 사용하며, 음식의 조미에는 재제염을 사용한다.




Honey 꿀


Honey was very expensive, which made it difficult to use in normal households. However, it was used often in the palace to make tteok and gwaja. In Chinese, honey is called chung. Clear honey, which is of the highest quality, is called baekchung. Yellow-colored honey is called hwangchung. 꿀은 비싼 것이라 민가에서는 흔하게 쓰지 못했지만 궁중에서는 음식에는 물론 떡, 과자를 만들 때 많이 썼다. 한자로는 청(淸)으로 표기하고, 투명하고 품질이 좋은 꿀을 백청(白淸), 노란색 꿀은 황청(黃淸)이라 한다.




Sugar 설탕


Sugar has been used in Korea since the Goryeo Dynasty, but was not disseminated to the general population. Up until the 1950s, yellow unrefined sugar was often used. 설탕은 고려 시대부터 썼으나 민가에까지 널리 퍼지지는 않았으며, 1950년도까지는 정제가 덜 된 황설탕은 많이 썼다.




Taffy, Grain Syrup 엿, 조청


This was used in the past to make a sweet taste, however, it is now used mostly in starch syrup 단맛을 내는 데 썼으나 지금은 물엿을 많이 쓴다.




Vinegar 식초


If you store alcohol in a pot, acetobacters enter the alcohol and oxidize it. As a result, acetic acid is created and clear yellow liquid comes to the top. This liquid is poured and used as vinegar. If you pour alcohol in again, in the same quantity as the extracted vinegar, vinegar keeps on forming. This is a completely different method of creating vinegar compared to today. The vinegar that is extracted with this method has also a unique smell. 술을 항아리에 담아 두면 초산균이 들어가서 알코올을 산화시켜 초산이 생기면서 황록색의 투명한 액이 위쪽에 모인다. 이것을 따라서 쓰고 다시 덜어낸 만큼 술을 부으면 계속 초가 만들어지는데 지금의 식초와는 전혀 다른 독특한 향이 있다.




Chili 고추


Young green chilies and ripe red chilies are used for seasoning. Most of the time, chili is dried to make a powder and is used for side dishes such as kimchi and gochujang. Shredded red pepper is used as a food garnish. 고추는 덜 성숙한 풋고추도 쓰고, 익은 붉은색 고추도 쓴다. 대부분은 말려서 고춧가루로 빻아 찬물과 김치와 고추장에 쓴다. 실고추는 주로 고명으로 쓴다.




Pepper 후추


Pepper came to Korea from China during the middle of the Goryeo Dynasty,. It has been used for a long time to create a spicy taste. Before the importation of pepper, akane (cheoncho) was used by a lot of Koreans. However, since the importation of red chili, it is rarely used. 고려 중엽에 중국에서 들어와서 오랫동안 매운맛을 내는 향신료로 써 왔다. 우리나라에는 원래 매운맛을 내는 천초(川椒)가 있었으나 고추가 들어온 이후 거의 쓰지 않게 되었다.




Mustard 겨자


Mustard is made by grinding the seeds of the leaf mustard. The powder itself is not spicy, but when it is mixed with hot water and put in a warm place it develops a spicy taste and is then used as a seasoning. The flavor of mustard can be changed using vinegar, sugar and salt. Then it can be used with gyoejachae and hwe. 갓의 씨앗을 빻아서 쓰는데 가루 자체에는 매운맛이 나지 않으며 더운물로 개어서 따뜻한 곳에 두어 매운맛이 나게 한 다음에 쓴다. 매운맛이 나면 식초, 설탕, 소금으로 간을 맞추어 겨자채나 회에 쓴다.




Oil 기름


Sesame and perilla oil are plant oils that were used a lot in the past. In the palaces, sesame oil was made from sesame seeds and was used in a variety of food. It was also used in making yugwa (oil-and-honey pastry) and yumil (honey flow). 식물성 기름으로 참기름(眞油)과 들기름(法油)을 주로 썼다. 궁중에서는 참깨로 만든 참기름을 음식에 두루 썼고 유과나 유밀과 만들 때도 많이 썼다.




Ground sesame mixed with salt 깨소금


Ground sesame mixed with salt is made by washing sesame seeds and boiling them. Before the seeds cool down, some salt is added and half of the seeds are ground in a mortar and used as seasoning. The boiled sesame seeds can also be used without grinding them. The white part of the sesame, after the inner layer of the skin is rubbed off, is called sil ggae. 참깨를 잘 일어서 씻어 건져 번철에 볶아 식기 전에 소금을 약간 넣고 절구에 반쯤 빻아서 양념으로 쓴다. 볶은 깨를 빻지 않고 통깨로 쓰기도 한다. 비벼서 속껍질까지 벗긴 깨를 실깨라고 하는데 희고 곱다.